Summer vacation for most children is a season of movement. Many spend time in the country, in a children’s camp, in the village with their grandmother, or go to the sea. Almost round-the-clock activity “in the air” is not only invaluable, but also a risk factor. Injury, heatstroke, intestinal infections, and overreaction to insect bites are the most common childhood problems that arise. How dangerous are these situations? And what to do when they occur?
Trauma and tetanus
Abrasions, puncture and cut wounds, in most cases, do not pose a serious danger. Shallow lesions only need antiseptic treatment and dressing. Therefore, it is worth making sure that hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine, miramistin, a patch and bandages are always “at hand”.
However, it should be remembered that in the absence of adequate immunity to tetanus, even a small injury to the skin can end in sadness.
According to the vaccination schedule, the first tetanus vaccination should take place at 3 months of age and then twice more, with an interval of 45 days. Revaccination is indicated at 18 months, then at 7, 14 years, and then every 10 years.
And in the absence of information about vaccinations or the vaccination itself, the state of immunity can be checked using a blood test for antibodies to tetanus. It is best to check your antibody levels before the summer vacation and get a tetanus shot if necessary.
Children tend to forget or ignore sun protection measures. Prolonged exposure to direct sunlight without a headgear and non-compliance with the drinking regime often cause systemic overheating. And high humidity and air temperature, against the background of physical activity, sharply weaken the body’s ability to cool itself.
Nausea, headache, dizziness, fever, weakness and even loss of consciousness require immediate assistance. Moving the baby to the shade or a cool room, rubbing it with water at room temperature and using antipyretics (for fever) is the first first aid for overheating. And if you lose consciousness, you should lay the child down, raise your legs and rub your temples. This will help restore blood circulation to the brain and consciousness.
Thorough washing of hands, vegetables and fruits, and water from safe sources is essential to protect against intestinal infections. However, children, like no one else, often ignore this rule.
Dysentery, salmonellosis, infection with enteropathogenic E. coli, and even viral intestinal infections can begin as common poisoning. Nausea, vomiting, loose stools can be mistaken for digestive problems. While lost time is fraught with the development of severe complications.
To check the “origin” of suspicious symptoms allows the analysis of feces “OKI-test” (dysentery, salmonellosis, adeno-, nora-, astro-, rotaviruses) and analysis for “Diarogenic E.coli”. And the PCR technique allows you to get results after 3 days, which is faster than 6-7 days in inoculation.
Insects and Quincke’s edema
Mosquito and mosquito bites most often do not cause reactions more than redness and itching. The same cannot be said about wasps and bees. Their poison can cause severe intoxication or an excessive allergic reaction.
Nausea, headache, chills, neurological disorders and Quincke’s edema https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angioedema can develop within hours after the bite and require immediate medical attention. Children with allergies are at particular risk for complications.